DEFINING SKILLS, KNOWLEDGE, AND ABILITIES (SKAs)
Sample Skills, Knowledge, and Abilities

Knowledge Modifiers
Vocational Skills
Reading Skills
Writing Skills
Speaking Skills
Mathematical Skills
Self Management Skills
Human Relations Skills
Reasoning Skills



KNOWLEDGE MODIFIERS
The following terms may be used to assist in defining the level of knowledge required.
General Knowledge Knowledge of the types of information contained in source documents, or knowledge of the general types of information covered in a subject field. General knowledge enables one to use a source to find specific information when it is needed. For example, a general knowledge of the UCLA Staff Policies refers to the knowledge of the purpose of the rules, the general subjects which the rules cover, and how to reference the rules.
Working Knowledge Includes general knowledge plus knowledge of and ability to recall important and commonly used information from the source. For example, a general working knowledge of the UCLA Staff Personnel Policies would include, as well as general knowledge, ability to recall major commonly used provisions of specific rules. However, working knowledge does not imply a thorough detailed knowledge of the specific provisions of all the rules.
Detailed Knowledge Thorough knowledge of all information contained in the source. Using the UCLA Staff Personnel Policies example again, an individual with detailed knowledge would be expected to know the provisions of all rules in detail without having to look them up, including provisions which are not frequently used. (In practice few jobs actually require detailed knowledge, since reference documents are generally available.)



VOCATIONAL SKILLS
Vocational, or work content skills, are those which deal with mastering a particular vocabulary, procedure or subject matter. They are related to performing a job in a particular field. They are rooted in personal experience acquired by such means as technical education, apprenticeship, or on-the-job training. Differentiation should be made between skill/knowledge specific to the University.

Skill in management of space, equipment and material resources including developing utilization plans and justifying acquisitions.
Knowledge of public sector collective bargaining including scope of representation, contract compliance and public sector labor union behavior.
Knowledge of where to go within the organization for needed information and ability to judge what information should be passed on to different levels of management.
Skill in projecting and monitoring income trends on the basis of existing revenue and cost data.
Knowledge of purchasing practices (including determination of needs, selection of items, bid letting and store management) sufficient to develop new procedures and purchasing programs.
Knowledge of federal and state affirmative action and equal employment opportunity laws and regulations applicable to public higher education institutions sufficient to analyze proposed personnel policies and procedures.
Knowledge of related outside _____ agencies, their services, roles and responsibilities to contact them appropriately to obtain needed information.
Word Processing skill to prepare business correspondence and reports with speed and accuracy.
Knowledge of chart, graph and table formatting.
Knowledge of different herbicides, insecticides, fertilizers and plant foods and how to use them appropriately to maintain the growth of grasses, trees, shrubs, and flowers.
Knowledge of the rules and procedures of sanitation and safety as applied to kitchens, dining areas and food supplies.
Knowledge of the habits, care, feeding and shelter of small rodents including mice and guinea pigs sufficient to maintain a small laboratory colony.



READING SKILLS
Reading to File Skill in reading English words, simple sentences and numbers on documents so they can be properly filed.
Reading Standard English Text Skill in reading documents written in standard English text (e.g. administrative manuals).
Reading Technical Skill in reading (technical, legal or scientific) documents, such as _____.



WRITING SKILLS
Basic Writing Skills in using basic English words and phrases to complete _____.

Skill in writing brief sentences to _____. (No emphasis placed upon proper grammar and punctuation knowledge due to presence of a number of standard examples which can be followed).
Visualization Writing skill to vividly describe people or scenes so that others can visualize them.
Businesss Writing Skill in writing grammatically correct routine business correspondence such as brief transmittal memoranda.

Skill in writing concise, logical, grammatically correct analytical reports to explain _____.

Skill in writing technical reports on _____ which are suitable for publication in professional journals.



SPEAKING SKILLS
Basic Oral Communication Skill in speaking simple sentences to _____ (Appropriate vocabulary and grammar not critical factors.)
Conversational Speaking Ability to speak on a one-to-one basis using appropriate vocabulary and grammar to:
obtain information
explain policies, procedures, etc.
persuade others to accept or adopt a specific opinion,
   action, etc.
Public Speaking Ability to make oral group presentations to:
persuade others to accept a specific opinion, action, etc.
provide information or explain procedures, policies, etc.
Extemporaneous Skill in discussing a variety of job-related topics on short or no notice.

Skill in handling rapid changes in conversation involving difficult questions.
Speaking with People of
Various Backgrounds
Skill in speaking with persons of various social, cultural, economic and educational backgrounds to _____.
Bilingual Speaking English/Spanish bilingual oral communication skill to _____.
Phone Reception Skill in speaking clearly and distinctly using correct English to _____.



MATHEMATICAL SKILLS
Basic Arithmetic Skill in adding and subtracting two digit numbers to _____.
Measures and Weights Skills in performing operations with units such as cup, pint, and quart; inch, foot, yard; ounce and pound to _____.
Metric System Knowledge of the metric system units (length, area, volume, capacity, mass and weight) and U.S. equivalents to _____.
Money Computation Skill in making change involving all denominations of American currency.
Arithmetic Skill in adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing whole numbers, fractions, and decimals without a calculator to _____.
Ratios, Rates and Percentages Skill in computing ratios, rates and percentages to _____.
Shop Math Skill in the practical application of fractions, percentages, ratios and proportions, logarithms, slide rule, practical algebra, geometric constructions, and essentials of trigonometry to _____.
Statistics Knowledge of descriptive statistics such as measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion.



SELF MANAGEMENT SKILLS
Changing Tasks Skill in performing a variety of duties, often changing from one task to another of a different nature. (Consider when several duties in a job indicate significant differences in technologies, techniques, environmental factors, physical demands or work situations.)
Repetition Skill in performing repetitive work according to set procedures, sequence and pace. (Consider when the work is performed according to a routine or set sequence and there is an absence of diversion or room for independent judgment.)
Distractions Skill in performing under the stress of frequent interruptions and/or distractions.
Fluctuating Workload Ability to perform effectively under conditions of fluctuating workload.
Prioritizing Skill in setting priorities which accurately reflect the relative importance of job responsibilities.

Skill in prioritizing assignments to complete work in a timely manner when there are:
changes in a workload.
changes in assignment.
pressures of deadlines.
competing requirements.
heavy workload.
Follow Through Skill in working independently and following through on assignments with minimal direction.
Ambiguity Ability to accept equivocal circumstances and take action where answers to a problem are not readily apparent.



HUMAN RELATIONS SKILLS
Coaching Skill in encouraging individuals on a personal, caring basis by approximating a peer or family type relationship either in a one-to-one or small group situation.

Skill in establishing rapport and gaining the trust of others.

Skill in listening perceptively and conveying awareness.
Persuading and
Negotiating
Skill in selling or promoting _____.

Skill in motivating others; stimulating people to effective action.

Skill in mediating between contending parties or groups.

Skill in negotiating; exchanging ideas, information, and opinions with others to formulate policies and programs and/or arrive jointly at decisions, conclusions or solutions.

Skill in reasoning persuasively to _____.
Teaching Skill in fostering a stimulating, accepting learning environment.
Teamwork Skill in working as part of a team; collaborating with colleagues.
Establishing Work
Relationships
Ability to establish and maintain cooperative working relationships with _____.
Interacting with People
of Various Backgrounds
Skill in interacting diplomatically with the public in a high volume, continuous public contact setting.

Ability to maintain equanimity in the face of resistance, indifference or hostility.
Public Relations Skill in interacting with persons of various social, cultural, economic and educational backgrounds for the purpose of _____.
Supervising Skill in supervising _____ including:
organizing objectives
delegating responsibility
training
delegating responsibility
evaluating subordinate effectiveness
administering necessary discipline



REASONING SKILLS
Comparing Skill in comparing/ inspecting _____ and judging whether they are similar to or different from prescribed standards.
Classifying Skill in systematically arranging into groups or categories according to established criteria.
Copying Skill in accurately copying, posting or transcribing data.
Analyzing Skill in analyzing information, problems, situations, practices or procedures to:
    Define the problem or objective. Identify relevant concerns or factors.
    Identify patterns, tendencies and relationships. Formulate logical and
    objective conclusions. Recognize alternatives and their implications.

Skill in perceiving and defining cause and effect relationships in _____.

Ability to analyze complex technical data such as using logic and quantitative reasoning.
Coordinating Skill in coordinating _____ by determining the time, place and sequence of actions to be taken on the basis of analysis of data.
Innovating Skill in organizing material, information, people in a systematic way to optimize efficiency and minimize duplication of effort.




MAIN INTRODUCTION DESCRIBING THE JOB DEFINING SKILLS APPENDICES